Maks-Solomon, Cory, and Elizabeth Rigby. 2020. “Are Democrats Really the Party of the Poor? Partisanship, Class, and Representation in the U.S. Senate.”
Political Research Quarterly 73 (4): 848–65. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912919862623.
Pre-publication draft can be found here. (And the Online Appendix is available here.) Replication materials are available through Google Drive. This research received media coverage at Vox and Jacobin. This research was previously presented at APSA 2017 and SPSA 2018.
Rich and poor Republicans are more in agreement on social issues than they are on economic issues; meanwhile, rich and poor Democrats are in absolute agreement on economic issues but rich Democrats are more liberal than poor Democrats on social issues. For each quintile (1 = poor; 5 = rich), the average ideology is plotted with a normally-distributed confidence interval surrounding it. The x-axis represents the percentage of issues that the respondent took a conservative stance, ranging from 0% to 80% of the issues.
Maks-Solomon, Cory. 2018. “
Direct Election and Economic Policy Voting in the U.S. Senate: Responsiveness to States, Voters, and Special Internets.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.
Roll call votes codebook available here. Replication data and Stata do-file available here.
Map shows all Oregon Plan states that adopted a form of de facto direct election before the implementation of the 17th Amendment. (Source: Kenny and Rush 1990)